Chapter 9: Academic Integrity and Style Rules (APA 7th edition)

Sample Reference Page


Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Houghton Mifflin.

Canty, L. (2021). The lived experience of severe maternal morbidity among Black women. Nursing Inquiry, 29(1), 1-15.

Lapum, J. (2018). Deepening the mystery of arts-based research in the health sciences. In P. Leavy (Ed.), Handbook of arts-based research (pp. 526-545). Guilford Press.

Racine, L., Ford, H., Johnson, L., & Fowler-Kerry, S. (2021). An integrative review of Indigenous informal caregiving in the context of dementia care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 78(4), 895-917.

St-Amant, O. (2014). A critical examination of the social organizations within Canadian NGOs in the provision of HIV/AIDS health network in Tanzania. (Publication No. 2092). [Doctoral dissertation, Western University]. Western Graduate & Postdoctoral Studies Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository.


***NOTE:  the reference list above should be double spaced with a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for each subsequent line of a citation. 



Student Tip

Personal Communication

Have you ever wanted to reference something from your instructor’s powerpoint slide or something they said during class or something an expert said at a conference. First, make sure what you want to reference is an original idea from your instructor and not just something from your required readings that they have repeated in class. You always want to go to the primary source if possible, and avoid citing your instructor’s powerpoint slides.

If it is something they said, you reference it as a Personal Communication in the text only; this means it does not need to go in your reference list (APA, 2020). You must ask their permission to reference them. Here is an example:

  • L. Santos (personal communication, November 4, 2019) indicated that it is best to use a trauma-informed nursing approach with all clients.

Artificial Intelligence

In most nursing courses, you will not be permitted to use artificial intelligence (AI). However, in rare cases, you may be permitted to do so. If so, how do you complete an in-text citation and a citation on the reference page? Here is an example:

When prompted with “What is scholarly writing?” the ChatGPT-generated text stated that “scholarly writing refers to the style of writing commonly used in academic and research contexts. It is characterized by its formal tone, precise language, and adherence to specific conventions and standards within a particular field of study” (OpenAI, 2024).


OpenAI. (2024). ChatGPT (April 29 version) [Large language model].


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The Scholarship of Writing in Nursing Education: 1st Canadian Edition Copyright © 2019 by Jennifer Lapum; Oona St-Amant; Michelle Hughes; Andy Tan; Arina Bogdan; Frances Dimaranan; Rachel Frantzke; and Nada Savicevic is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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