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Part of the content of this textbook contains material from two Open Educational Resources (OERs). The OERs adapted include:

© Apr 10, 2017 OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology. Textbook content produced by OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at

© 2015 British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Download this book for free at


For information about what was used and/or changed in this adaptation, refer to the statement at the bottom of each page where applicable.


Content that is not taken from the above two OERs should include the following attribution statement:

© 2018 Ryerson University. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Vital Sign Measurement Across the LifeSpan (1st Canadian edition) by Jennifer L. Lapum, Margaret Verkuyl, Oona St-Amant, Wendy Garcia, Andy Tan. Download this book for free at: