Chapter 10 – Integrated Marketing Communications

10.4 Advertising and Direct Promotion


  • Understand the difference between media and vehicles.
  • Explain the similarities and differences between advertising and direct promotion.
  • Understand the benefits of direct promotion

A media is the method by which advertising or direct promotion is delivered to a target audience It should be selected based on the goals of the campaign.

Advertising is paid promotion, by companies, governments, industry associations and non-profit organizations that reaches many people at once. One of the biggest issues a company must address is the media that are the most efficient in terms of money spent and effectiveness in delivering the message about the product to the appropriate target market.

Each media type has advantages and disadvantages. For example, magazines and newspapers engage people longer and the reader’s attention is directed by the way they are laid out. Radio is often used when consumers are doing another activity (e.g., driving) and relies solely on audio. Television adds dynamic visual demonstrations to the audio. Out-of-door advertising reaches people when they are outside their homes.


Figure 10.5 – “Toronto (Ontario – Canada) [City Clock]” by City Clock Magazine is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

People may keep printed magazines longer than they are exposed to digital magazines. However, advertisers must be extra careful in their planning and implementation of print material as they can’t make changes or correct errors after it is printed. Many magazines and newspapers have gone digital either abandoning print altogether or providing both a print and digital version. Due to the dominance of search engines, fewer consumers value the editorial function of magazines and newspapers so that their readership and advertising dollars have declined. Print media is also integrating technology within the printed papers. Readers can scan a QR code on the printed page to launch a digital option to buy branded ingredients from an online or bricks and mortar store (Printweek, 2021). Social media can be effective because it delivers advertising messages that are relevant to the consumer based on their posts, contacts and device location.


Within each media type, a company might select a different vehicle. A vehicle is the specific means within a medium to reach a selected target market. For example, if a company wants to develop television commercials to reach those who identify as female aged 16 to 24, it might select the Keeping Up With the Kardashians, a television program to advertise as the best vehicle. To reach video gamers, companies might insert a branded avatar within a game consistent with their brand image or advertise on a website such IGN, a review site for games.

Direct Promotion (Print, Online and Mobile)

Direct marketing allows companies to target a specific set of customers, measure the return on investment (ROI), and test different strategies before implementing to all targeted consumers. It can be personalized as a call for consumers to take the desired response. However, many consumers consider direct promotion to be intrusive because it uses their own devices (e.g. text messaging on a mobile phone).

Telemarketing involves direct marketing by phone. Although expensive and increasingly subject to call screening by consumers, telemarketing can still be effective for charitable companies, political parties and some service companies. It works best when there is an existing relationship between the company and the customer.

Direct response advertising includes an offer and a call to action. You may be watching television when an interesting product is shown. The announcer says, “Call now and receive a bonus package.” They want consumers to call to purchase the product or to get more information. In Canada, The Shopping Channel (TSC) provides a complete shopping experience using on-air hosts to promote various categories such as health and beauty, jewelry, home/lifestyle, fashion/accessories, and electronics. They offer price deals called “Show Stoppers” to encourage viewers to call and purchase immediately.

‡ signifies new material that Ryerson University authors have added to this adaptation of Principles of Marketing published by University of Minnesota Library Publishing, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Principles of Marketing, 1st Canadian Edition Copyright © by Anthony Francescucci, Joanne McNeish, Nukhet Taylor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book