Chapter 13: Works Cited

How to Cite and Reference with MLA

When paraphrasing ideas or summarizing the facts in a piece of writing, parenthetical citation is used to credit the original author. You do this by including the author’s last name and the page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the sentence:

The media is more interested in reporting on Serena’s appearance than her spectacular athletic abilities (Schultz 338).

Another method is to include the author’s name in the sentence with the page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Schultz argues that the media is more interested in writing about Serena’s appearance than her spectacular athletic abilities (338).

Include the full reference of the journal article in the  Works Cited list.

Schultz, Jaime. “Reading the catsuit: Serena Williams and the production of blackness at the 2002 US Open.” Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 29(3), 2005, pp. 338-357.

In this MLA example of in-text citing, the author’s name is used in the introductory phrase (a.k.a. signal phrase), the page number is in parentheses and follows the sentence:

According to Ruffo, his poems were meant to create a connection between the paintings and actual events in Morrisseau’s life (9).

Include the full reference in the bibliography at the end of your paper like this:

Ruffo, Armand G. The Thunderbird Poems. Harbour Publishing, 2015.

MLA Reference examples


Vowel, Chelsea. Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Issues in Canada. HighWater Press, 2016.

Chapter in a book

Fong, Eric. “Residential Segregation of Visible Minority Groups in Toronto.” Asian Canadian studies reader, edited by Roland Sintos Colomba and Gordon Pon, University of Toronto Press, 2017.

Scholarly journal article

Deflem, Mathieu. “Professor Goes Gaga: Teaching Lady Gaga and the Sociology of Fame.” The American Sociologist, vol. 44, no. 2, 2013, pp. 117-131.

government document available online

Mackay, Robin, Karin Phillips, and Canada. Parliamentary Information and Research Service. The Legal Regulation of Marijuana in Canada and Selected Other Countries. vol. 2016-94-E., Library of Parliament, 2016.


Ehret, Stephanie. “Introduction and overview of the Canadian criminal justice system” CRM 100: Introduction to Canadian criminal justice [lecture]. Ryerson University, 18 January 2018.

Online Video

Rose, Martine, director. Trawna Tuh Belvul. National Film Board of Canada, 1994.

Article in a magazine

Cole, Desmond. “The Skin I’m in.” Toronto Life, vol. 49, 2015.


@ladygaga. “In our documentary the #chronicillness #chronicpain I deal w/ is #Fibromyalgia I wish to help raise awareness & connect people who have it.” Twitter, 12 Sept. 2017.


Stoehr, Kali & Eisen, Anna. “Research 101: Scholarship is a Conversation.” Youtube, 2014.


Beyoncé. “Formation.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,


Pratt, Christopher. Young Girl with Seashells. 1965. Memorial University Art Gallery Permanent Collection, Corner Brook.



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Write Here, Right Now: An Interactive Introduction to Academic Writing and Research Copyright © 2018 by Ryerson University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.